Fulfilling the Trends in Data Centers and Server SMPS via Packaging and Thermal Solutions

The emergence of cloud-based internet services, artificial intelligence, and cryptocurrency has initiated a strong growth of processing power in data centers worldwide. In combination with rising electricity and real estate prices, this trend creates a clear need for highly efficient and compact server power supplies and server SMPS applications. To achieve the required higher power … Read more

Five major trends in power supply design for servers

Because servers are essential for handling data communications, the server industry has grown exponentially in parallel with the Internet. Although server units were originally based on a PC architecture, a server system must be able to handle the increasing number and complexity of network hosts. Figure 1 shows a typical rack server system in a … Read more

Homebrew loop gain test transformer

You can purchase test equipment that will allow you to examine the loop gain and loop phase properties of an operating feedback loop and, that purchased equipment will deliver useful results over a very wide range of frequencies. However, the feedback loops in the power supplies I’ve encountered only needed to be characterized over fairly … Read more

Integrated Circuits Offer Enhanced Protection & Improved Safety Features for High Reliability Power Supplies

This article discusses the high-reliability power systems and increasing efficiency and reliability. The design of high-reliability systems encompasses the use of fault-tolerant design techniques, the selection of suitable components to meet the anticipated environmental conditions and compliance to standards. This article focuses on semiconductor solutions for the implementation of high-reliability power supplies including redundancy, circuit … Read more

Current sensing considerations in a bridgeless totem pole PFC

Two of the top considerations in data center and server power-supply unit (PSU) designs are power density and efficiency. Meeting the strictest efficiency standard—80 Plus Titanium—is now a minimum requirement for next-generation data center and server PSUs. The 80 Plus Titanium requires over 96% end-to-end peak efficiency, which means that the power factor correction (PFC) … Read more

The Pros and Cons of Integrated Magnetics

This article analyzes the benefits and possible drawbacks integrated magnetics has to offer and the areas of application where utilizing integrated magnetics in a design is effective. In a majority of switched-mode power electronics systems, inductors and transformers are the key contributors to the overall size, weight, and volume. In order to optimize such systems, … Read more

Implementing load-line control for a multi-phase buck converter

With the proliferation of 5G networks, cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT) and virtualization, IT infrastructure is driving the demand for high-performance computing servers. Each new server generation requires higher computing power and efficiency, while also increasing power requirements. One of the key aspects in ensuring that servers meet market demands is to understand the … Read more

How GaN FETs Have Become the Technology of Choice for Audiophiles

Gallium nitride (GaN) FETs are becoming widely preferred in many products, from low power, low-cost applications such as smart device chargers all the way up to high power automotive applications. Mostly, designers are impressed by the increased efficiency and power density that GaN delivers, which results in devices that have greater power capabilities than their … Read more

Enabling Greater Power Density in Charger and Adapter Designs with Highly Efficient GaN-Based Converters

The most popular power converter topology used in today’s charger and adapter applications is quasi-resonant (QR) flyback topology, thanks to its simple structure and control, low bill-of-materials cost, and high efficiency due to valley-switching operation. However, the frequency-dependent switching loss of the switches and the leakage energy loss of the transformer limit the maximum switching … Read more

Increasing Fault-Analysis Accuracy in Wide-Bandgap Power Devices

World energy consumption is expected to grow by nearly 50% between 2018 and 2050, with increased demand for renewable energy, electrification of the automotive industry systems, and growing demand for miniaturization and increased efficiency of devices in power management applications. As the dimensions of semiconductor devices shrink and become more complex, defect localization and failure … Read more