Precision synchronous detection amplifier facilitates low voltage measurements

This design idea presents a practical circuit that implements synchronous detection to amplify small DC voltages with high linearity and excellent noise immunity. Such circuits are required in measurements involving current shunts, load cells, thermocouples, etc. Synchronous detection is explained in many books, papers and instrument manuals. If you are not familiar with the topic, … Read more

New VFC uses flip-flops as high speed, precision analog switches

Voltage to frequency converters (VFCs) are a popular method of noise-tolerant analog to digital conversion. Synchronous VFCs (like the Analog Devices AD652) in which an external, usually crystal-derived, clock provides timing for the conversion process, have significant performance advantages (speed, linearity, precision independent of passive components) over the free-running type in which conversion timing must … Read more

Analog Electronics Basics: An Overview of BiCMOS Operational Amplifiers

Learn about the operational amplifier, a device employed to perform a broad range of linear functions. Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are by far the most versatile of the linear ICs. These are “operational” amplifiers since they initially performed mathematical operations. Op-amps amplify the difference between voltages or signals applied to their two inputs. The voltage applied … Read more

Introduction to Operational Amplifier Applications, Op-amp Basics

The operational amplifier is arguably the most useful single device in analog electronic circuitry. When you apply them in the circuits, you must know their basics and functions. 1. Introduction As for the function of the operational amplifier, in electronic circuit, it is usually combined with a feedback network to form a certain functional module, … Read more

Considerations for High-Voltage Measurements

The increasing popularity of HEVs and EVs increases the need for engineers to understand design considerations for high-voltage systems, including the need to accurately measure high voltages. The increasing popularity of HEVs and EVs increases the need for engineers to understand design considerations for high-voltage systems, including the need to accurately measure high voltages Many … Read more

The basics of testing op amps, part 1: Circuits test key op-amp parameters

This article is part of a series. See also: Part 2, Test op amps for input bias currentPart 3, Configurable circuit tests op ampsPart 4, Testing op amps requires stable test loops A version of Part 1 appeared in the Dec. 2011/Jan. 2012 issue of Test & Measurement World . See the PDF. In January … Read more

Circuit provides more accurate multiplication

Common analog multiplyingdevices employ methods usingtransistor parameters. Precise versionsof these devices use the logarithm methodof multiplication. This methodinvolves the addition of logarithms andan exponential conversion (Reference1). Using these methods, you canachieve a minimal error of ±0.1%. ThisDesign Idea reduces the error, employsreadily available standard components,and maintains the correct voltage scale. The structure squares the sum … Read more

Fabricate a high-resolution sensor-to-USB interface

The circuit in this Design Ideacombines a mixed-signal microcontroller,a USB UART (universalasynchronous receiver/transmitter), anda novel adaptable analog sensor-inputcircuit. It allows you to connect manytypes of sensors to the design’s two analog-input channels, control the device,and read measurement data on a USBhost. The USB connection powers thecircuit. You can control the device fromyour computer with simple … Read more

The art of powering wearable electronics

The number of smart devices that we use every day is growing, especially as we approach the ramping up of the IoT and 5G. We all use multiple devices now and they all will mostly need charging and maintenance of their power. The wearables market currently is composed primarily of wristbands and smart watches. The … Read more

Enhancing audio system designs with digital signal processing

By the way, just a quick comment on the designation of geek: I am an analog geek, and when you attain the designation of geek, you know that people are mostly referring to your steadfast dedication as an enthusiast, obsessed with a vocation toward expertise in a particular area, in my case it is analog … Read more