Software development model for the ISO/SAE 21434 standard

In the functional safety world, once a system is developed, it remains protected as long as the system is in service. In contrast, the security world demands that software must continue to defend a system against constantly evolving methods of attack long after a product is released. With the explosion in demand for in-vehicle connectivity, … Read more

Preventing Failures in High-Temperature Manufacturing Processes

Any machine can become a source of elevated temperature, even under regular operation. We cannot assume that temperature problems occur only based on climate conditions, and mitigation steps must be employed. In a previous article, we discussed different issues automated systems experience when operating under high temperatures. This article will discuss various industry diagnostics and … Read more

I/O Module Debate: Digital Output or Relay Output?

When selecting the right module for the right load, be sure to understand how the load resistance will affect the voltage and current of the output module terminals. It should be simple. Input device information comes into an input module on a controller, and output modules send signals to output devices from the controller. But … Read more

Understanding Illumination: LED Lighting Solutions For Battery-powered Electronics

Learn about the need for advanced illumination before examining trends in LED performance and customizable light-emitting diode (LED) colors. Miniature battery-powered devices have become commonplace in everyday life. These products are trending towards increased computing power, greater wireless range, and more polished user interaction all while extending battery life and reducing cost. One particularly important … Read more

Modern Approach to the Electrification of Consumer Outdoor Power Tools

The consumer outdoor power tool market is becoming increasingly electrified, and new design decisions are facing companies and consumers alike. Learn more about the future of outdoor power tool design. The consumer outdoor power tool market is becoming increasingly electrified, and new design decisions are facing companies and consumers alike. For example, cordless power tools, … Read more

National Electrical Code Basics: Computing Voltage Drop in Branch Circuits and Feeders Part 3

Learn about voltage drop calculations in three-phase branch circuits and feeders. The three-phase system is the most common in large residential complexes and commercial and industrial facilities. The three-phase system is more economical for transmitting power at a fixed power loss than the single-phase system due primarily to reducing the I²R losses and voltage drop … Read more

Understanding Probing Requirements When Measuring Dynamic Power Module Parameters

For high-quality characterization, wide-bandgap (WBG) transistors need to be characterized dynamically. In contrast to discrete devices, testing a power module in a double-pulse test system requires measuring low-side and high-side signals. This introduces new challenges for isolation and common-mode (CM) rejection due to the high voltage and fast switching. This article provides an overview of … Read more

Cloud Computing and the Industrial Internet of Things

Over the last decade, cloud service providers have improved technology, particularly data security and integrity. These remain the top concern of many manufacturing businesses, but as improvements are rolled out, more and more companies are adopting cloud solutions.  What is Cloud Computing? The cloud is a collection of servers that enable access to software and … Read more

Analyzing 2nd-Order Circuits in Laplace Space Using Python

Learn about simplifying the mathematics of circuit analysis using the Laplace transform, Python, and SymPy using a series RLC circuit as an example. Studying electrical circuits can be a very slippery slope. Before you know it, you’re knee-deep in differential equations. This can be scary to folks who feel uncomfortable with calculus. However, I often … Read more