Taking the Guesswork Out of DDR Design with Integrated Schematic, Layout and Simulation Tools

DDR memory is quickly becoming not only the leading technology but the only technology used in memory design. As such, DDR systems are in high demand in the tech industry. High-speed simulation tools that are integrated with schematic and PCB design software can give designers a wide range of powerful features to help with the … Read more

Algebraic Manipulation

Boolean expression can be transform into an equivalent expression by applying the postulates and theorems of boolean algebra. Minimizing and maximizing terms and expressions are important because electrical circuits sometimes consist of individual components that apply each term or literal for a given expression. Mintern and Maxterm A minterm has the property that it is … Read more

Addressing 100-GbE Line-Card Design Challenges on 28-nm FPGAs

As various standard bodies finalize their 100G standards for transport, Ethernet, and optical interfaces, FPGAs play a vital role for early adopters of technology who want to design 100G production systems. Because of this increasing demand for more bandwidth, service providers are looking at emerging 40-GbE/100-GbE standards for their next-generation line card options. Altera® Stratix® … Read more

MPLS-TP – Emerging Technology for Packet Transport Network

With the ever growing demand for bandwidth primarily being driven by the wireless-mobile market, the communication equipment suppliers are on a quest to transform the existing cell-based grid into more scalable and efficient packet-based networks—particularly transport. The legacy TDM (i.e. SONET/SDH) has been known for its reliability and manageability. Introduction With the ever growing demand … Read more

State Machines Coding Styles

State machines are so common that there are tools devoted to creating them by drawing circles and arts. There are simulators that will recognize your state machine and animate it to help you debug it. There are even synthesis tools that will add error correcting logic to your state machines so that it can recover … Read more

Illogical Logic Part 1 – Boolean Algebra

When it comes to logic we know its all supposed to make sense. However for some of us, casting your mind back to class on logic gates and understand it all just make nonsense. When it comes to logic, we know it’s all supposed to make sense. For newcomers, it can also be very confusing … Read more

For Those About to Clock, We Salute You

As technologies shrink, design architectures evolve, and higher speeds are required, more complex issues and strategies have surfaced relating to CTS. A surefire way to ensure a design’s success lies in focused but flexible handling of the clocks. This article examines CTS relating to (1) hierarchical approaches, (2) low power considerations and (3) new flow … Read more

Fisheye IC Lens Correction Made Simple

Fisheye images, spanning a field of view of up to 180 degrees, can offer fascinating and exotic qualities. They offer a density of visual information that is otherwise inaccessible to the naked eye or by the use of regular ‘pinhole’ type cameras, even when fitted with a wide-angle lens. Intersil’s Jonpaul Jandu describes a cost … Read more