The Complicated Relationship Between CO2 and Lifetime Cost of a Car

The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses a database of all cars to calculate the cost and CO2 emissions of the “average car” within each vehicle category. More specifically, it calculates the total cost per mile ($/mile) and CO2 emissions per mile (CO2/mile) over a vehicle’s lifetime, as shown in the first two columns … Read more

Unraveling the Thermocouple Approximation Error Using the Least Squares Method

Learn about the linear approximation error for a type k thermocouple and how to use the least squares method and Matlab to find the line of best fit that minimizes the approximation error. Previously, we examined the hardware implementation of cold junction compensation (CJC) for thermocouples. CJC circuits need to sense the temperature of the cold … Read more

National Electrical Code Basics: Overcurrent Protection Part 5

Learn about the protection of grounded conductors and the requirements above 1 000 V, and test yourself on overcurrent protection knowledge. To catch up on Lorenzo Mari's series on Overcurrent Protection, please visit: National Electrical Code Basics: Overcurrent Protection Part 1 National Electrical Code Basics: Overcurrent Protection Part 2 National Electrical Code Basics: Overcurrent Protection … Read more

How to Design a Transformer: Size and Selection

Transformers are key electrical components useful in determining the power reaching the load from the supply. In this article, you will learn how to design a transformer through a well-documented guide that will enable you to select and size transformers. A transformer is one of the major components when focusing on electricity distribution. It significantly impacts … Read more

Introduction to Raspberry Pi: History, Hardware, and Software

Raspberry Pi is a low-cost, educational single-board computer platform with the potential for industrial applications. In this article, we discuss the purpose of Raspberry Pi as well as its hardware and software. Raspberry Pi is a platform of low-cost, single-board computers meant to make computer science more accessible worldwide. Similar to the philosophy of the … Read more

Specifications: The hidden bargain for formal verification

With 68% of the ASICs going through respins and 83% of the FPGA designs failing the first time around, verification poses interesting challenges. It’s also not a secret that nearly 60-70% of the cost of chip design to tape out is in verification. Simulation-based verification is not scaling up and bugs continue to escape. The … Read more

Creating more energy-efficient mobile networks with O-RAN

Environmental sustainability is essential for the future of our planet. Representing about 2% of global energy consumption today, the telecom industry can contribute significantly to achieving this goal by restraining its emissions and enabling other sectors to become more energy-efficient through digitization. Environmental sustainability is at the top of the telecom industry’s agenda. The latest … Read more

Private 5G Network will help to build an Industrial Automation Ecosystem

Automation and fast data transfer are essential for industrial manufacturing, which uses complex and advanced procedures. Despite the speed of 5G networks, security is still a very difficult issue to solve. Private networks are less vulnerable to cyberattacks and have higher overall network efficiency thanks to the usage of discrete licensed frequencies. More businesses will … Read more

How to manage changing IP in an evolving SoC design

In a previous article, Getting started in structured assembly in complex SoC designs, an unexceptional system-on-chip (SoC) design was shown to contain hundreds of intellectual property (IP) blocks. Also, it was demonstrated how connections between these IP blocks may involve hundreds or thousands of ports with multiple tie-off options. Some IP blocks may come from … Read more